View Full Version : Film Lighting Tutorials????


ad2478
07-25-2009, 01:08 AM
Dear friends i have searched on youtube and have found good lighting tutorials. I have a request if you any any other sites from where i can get Film lighting tutorials in video or theory form kindly share it. There are plenty of sites and any one of you might have have a useful site link so please share with me. I will be grateful to you.

Regatds

hessonfilms
07-26-2009, 04:00 AM
This is a great idea! I'm looking forward to see what everyone recommends.

aceinc1
07-26-2009, 07:55 AM
go to,

www.jamesarnett.com/sections.html

it has details on pre-production, production and post in detail.

regards,
Ace.inc1

Smith
07-26-2009, 01:34 PM
go to,

www.jamesarnett.com/sections.html

it has details on pre-production, production and post in detail.

regards,
Ace.inc1

Thats really good

ad2478
07-26-2009, 09:47 PM
No Doubt As aceinc1 said:
go to,

www.jamesarnett.com/sections.html

it has details on pre-production, production and post in detail.

regards,
Ace.inc1

Great stuff

knightly
07-26-2009, 11:38 PM
http://rtf.utexas.edu/sp/groups/public/@commrtf/documents/general_information/prod75_012403.pdf

ad2478
07-27-2009, 11:44 PM
Thanks for sharingthe info :)

black gun forge
10-07-2009, 11:26 AM
videomaker is quite good! but then again all there tutorials are on youtube aswell
check them out

M1chae1
10-07-2009, 11:41 AM
http://rtf.utexas.edu/sp/groups/public/@commrtf/documents/general_information/prod75_012403.pdf

This is good for beginners--gives reference comparisons. I like to look at an image, and guess where the lights are set up...this is a good set of examples for that.

scottspears
10-07-2009, 03:28 PM
I'm hate to pimp my own site but I have some tutorials on lighting and filmmaking in general. I apologize for the small size, I need to upload them to youtube at some point.

Anyway, my site is: www.scottspears.net

Enjoy,

Scott

knightly
10-09-2009, 11:56 AM
Pimp away Mr. Spears, you've got good info on your site... Here's another I will dredge up from herre at IT: http://www.indietalk.com/showthread.php?t=9597

ad2478
10-10-2009, 01:50 AM
I'm hate to pimp my own site but I have some tutorials on lighting and filmmaking in general. I apologize for the small size, I need to upload them to youtube at some point.

Anyway, my site is: www.scottspears.net

Enjoy,

Scott


Quality is what matter at the end friend......!

ad2478
10-29-2009, 05:25 AM
on this same thread i had a good link but looks like the page is changed or what. It was also a good site related to lighting but i have forgot the name...:(
If anyone has idea of any other site related to this then it will be a great help

more over i clicked this link

http://www.indietalk.com/showthread.php?t=9597

and its constantly asking for login id??? whats the problem with it?

More over a link is pasted here which is

http://www.jamesarnett.com/sections.html


but dont know whats the problem with this page?? its showing some ADS only....

knightly
10-29-2009, 06:51 AM
I think the images from Freezer's production have changed host which is now asking for login info to view them... I'll try to fix that...FIXED!

nejuicer
11-19-2009, 03:20 PM
…. if you (know of) any other sites from where i can get Film lighting tutorials or theory … kindly share it. There are plenty of sites and any one of you might h have a useful site link… so please share with me. I will be grateful to you.

I am a gaffer and rental house owner/operator. For my company news letter I have written an article on the use of portable gas generators in motion picture production. As part of my research for the article, I ran a series of tests in order to analyze the interaction of conventional AVR generators (a Honda EX5500 with Crystal Governor), as well as inverter generators (a Honda EU6500is), with the prevalent light sources available today. The results of my tests are going to be cited in the upcoming 4th edition of the “Set Lighting Technician’s Handbook.” My article is available online at:
http://www.screenlightandgrip.com/html/emailnewsletter_generators.html

To quickly summarize what I discovered, distortion of set power by the harmonic currents that fluorescent and HMI electronic ballasts dump back into the power stream is an increasing problem in HD production. It is increasingly an issue because portable generators were not designed for the abundance of non-linear loads, like electronic HMI and Fluorescent lighting, that make up lighting packages today. The problem is being further compounded by the increasing prevalence on set of sophisticated electronic production equipment like computers, hard drives and HD monitors which require clean power, but are themselves sources of harmonic distortion.

Normally, when you plug a fluorescent or HMI light into a wall outlet you need not be concerned about the current harmonics generated producing voltage distortions. The impedance of the electrical path from the power plant is so low, the distortion of the original voltage waveform so small (1-3%), and the plant capacity so large, that inherently noisy loads like HMI and fluorescent ballasts placed upon it will not affect the voltage at the load bus.

http://www.screenlightandgrip.com/images/generators/waveform_pkg_comp_AVR_In.jpg
Left: Conventional generator power w/ pkg. of non-PFC Elec. HMI Ballasts & Kino Flo Wall-o-Lite. Right: Inverter generator power w/ Pkg. of PFC Elec. Ballasts & Kino Flo Parabeam 400.

However, my research has shown that it is an all together different situation when plugging HMIs into conventional portable generators. Given the large sub-transient impedance of conventional portable generators, even a small degree of harmonic noise being fed back into the power stream will result in a large amount of distortion in its’ voltage. Add to that, the likely hood that the percentage of the generator’s capacity taken up by electronic HMI & Kino ballasts will to be very high given its small size relative to typical lighting packages, and given the increasing prevalence of these types of light sources in production. Finally, add that the original supply voltage waveform of a conventional generator is appreciably distorted to begin with, and you have a situation where the return of any harmonic currents by an HMI or fluorescent ballast will result in significant waveform distortion of the voltage at the power bus.

http://www.screenlightandgrip.com/images/HD_PP_DemoCU.jpg
Two Shot of Night exterior scene

The power waveform above left is from my article and is typical of what results from the operation of a couple of Kino Flo 4x4s and a couple of 1200W HMIs with non-power factor corrected ballasts on a conventional portable generator. The adverse effects of the harmonic noise exhibited here, can take the form of overheating and failing equipment, circuit breaker trips, excessive current on the neutral wire, and instability of the generator’s voltage and frequency. It is for these reasons, it has never been possible to reliably operate more than a couple of 1200W HMIs with electronic ballasts on a conventional 6500W portable gas generator.

http://www.screenlightandgrip.com/images/HD_PP_DemoWS.jpg
Wide Shot of Night exterior scene lit with a pkg. consisting of PFC 2.5 & 1.2 HMI Pars, PFC 800w Joker HMI, Kino Flo Flat Head 80, 2 ParaBeam 400s, and a ParaBeam 200 .

In the past, when portable generators were used in motion picture lighting, attention was paid to such features as automatic voltage regulation and crystal speed regulation. But, given the rise in production problems associated with harmonic noise, an increasingly more important feature today is the quality of the generated power waveform and how well it interacts with the lighting units predominantly used today.

http://www.screenlightandgrip.com/images/HD_PP_Demo_SetUp_Night.jpg
PFC 2.5 & 1.2 HMI Pars, PFC 800w Joker HMI, Kino Flo Flat Head 80, 2 ParaBeam 400s, and a ParaBeam 200 powered by a modified Honda EU6500is through a 60A Full Power Transformer/Distro

My tests also show that when your lighting package consists predominantly of non-linear light sources, like HMI and Fluorescent lights, it is essential to have Power Factor Correction (PFC) circuitry in your fluorescent and HMI ballasts and to operate them on an inverter generator. As the power waveform above right of the same HMI and Kino Flo lights but with PFC ballasts indicates, the combination of improved power factor and the nearly pure power waveform of the inverter generator creates clean stable set power that is capable of reliably operating larger lights (HMIs up to 6kw or Quartz lights up to 5kw), or more smaller lights, off of portable gas generators than has ever been possible before. For example, on a recent Red shoot (the production stills attached) we used the 7500W continuous load capacity of our modified Honda EU6500is Generator to power a lighting package that consisted of a 2.5kw, 1200, & 800 HMI Pars (w/PFC ballasts), a couple of Kino Flo ParaBeam 400s, a couple of ParaBeam 200s, and a Flat Head 80. Given the light sensitivity of the Red Camera, this was all the light we needed to light a large night exterior.

http://www.screenlightandgrip.com/images/HD_PP_Demo_Transformer-Distro.jpg
A Distro System consisting of a 60A Full Power Transformer/Distro, 2-60A GPC (Bates) Splitters, 2-60A Woodhead Box distributes power from a modified Honda EU6500is. Even though the generator is 100' away to reduce noise, plug-in points remain conveniently close to set.

I highly recommend that anyone responsible for the generation of power on a set read this article. While the lighting package I have developed as a result of my tests, maximizes the number of instruments that can be run on a portable gas generator, is new; the set power issues caused by non-PFC fluorescent and HMI ballasts have been vexing electricians for years. The article explains the electrical engineering principles behind these issues, and how my lighting package (detailed elsewhere in this forum at http://www.indietalk.com/showthread.php?t=20218 ) resolves them.

Guy Holt, Gaffer, ScreenLight & Grip, Boston

ad2478
11-19-2009, 08:43 PM
Looks great material to me but will take some time to read it.. thanks for sharing something great..:) but i want to ask one thing nejuicer the equipments which are being showed in the pics are they really costly?

nejuicer
11-20-2009, 10:45 AM
Looks great material to me .... but i want to ask one thing nejuicer the equipment... showed in the pics are they really costly?

The lights shown in the production stills above are part of our HD Plug & Play Pkg. (described elsewhere in this forum at http://www.indietalk.com/showthread.php?t=20218.) In order to maximize the lighting output you can get from a portable generator, we picked lights for our HD Plug & Play Pkg. (HD P&P Pkg.) that offer the highest output (lumens/watt), the least harmonic distortion, and the most feature style production capability, and combined them with proprietary distribution technology we've developed that enhances the production capability of the new Honda Inverter Generators to provide 7500 Watts of power in a single circuit that is capable of powering larger lights, or more smaller lights, than has ever been possible before on a portable gas generator. The lights that make up our HD P&P Pkg. consist of the latest technology from Mole Richardson, K5600, Power to Light, Kino Flo, and Honda. It includes:

1) More efficient and compact HMI, Quartz, and now Fluorescent Par Lights.
2) Brighter and more efficient "short arc" HMI bulb designs.
3) Electronic HMI and Kino Flo ballasts with Power Factor Correction.

Yes they are expensive. Anything new is more expensive. But, while these new lights tend to be more expensive than older designs, the additional expense is more than offset by the savings of not having to rent an expensive movie blimped tow generator with all of its’ hidden costs.

I know there is a lot of material in my article, but I strongly encourage anyone using HMIs on portable generators to read it. It is full of useful information that is contrary to the half baked conventional wisdom you read in forums and can save you money. For example, if you can not afford the newest power factor corrected HMI ballasts, you are better served by using the older magnetic ballasts on an inverter generator like the Honda EU6500is over non-PFC electronic ballasts. As I explain in my article, when electronic square wave HMI ballasts came on the market, they were at first thought to be the solution to all the problems inherent in running HMI lights on small portable generators. By eliminating the flicker problem associated with magnetic ballasts, they also eliminated the need for the expensive and ultimately unreliable AC governors required for flicker free filming with magnetic HMI ballasts and portable gas generators.



Since they are not frequency dependent, it was thought at first that electronic square wave ballasts would operate HMIs more reliably on small portable generators – even those without frequency governors. For this reason, as soon as electronic square wave ballasts appeared on the market, many lighting rental houses replaced the more expensive crystal governed portable generators with less expensive non-synchronous portable generators. The theory was that an electronic square wave ballast would operate reliably on a non governed generator and allow filming at any frame rate, where as a magnetic HMI ballast operating on an unreliably AC governed generator allowed filming only at permitted frame rates. 



In practice, electronic square wave ballasts turned out to be a mixed blessing. Part of the problem with operating electronic HMI ballasts on portable gas generators in the past has to do with the purity of the power waveform they generate. With an applied voltage waveform distortion of upwards of 19.5%, conventional generators do not interact well with the leading power factor (current leads voltage) of the capacitive reactance created by electronic square wave HMI ballasts. The net result is harmonic currents are thrown back into the power stream, which results in a further degradation of the voltage waveform and ultimately to equipment failure or damage (for the reasons discussed in my previous post.)

http://www.screenlightandgrip.com/images/generators/wwaveform_no-load.jpg
Left: Grid Power w/ no load and a THD of less then 3%. Center: Conventional Generator w/ no load and a THD of 17-19%. Right: Inverter Generator w/ no load and a THD of 2.5%.

The oscilloscope shots of the power waveforms below is from my article mentioned above and is typical of what results from the operation of a 1200W HMI with non-power factor corrected ballast on grid power (left), on a conventional generator (middle), and inverter generator (right.) As a comparison of the oscilloscope shots above and below indicate, the return of harmonic currents by non-PFC electronic HMI ballasts can generate severe voltage distortion in the power generated by conventional portable generators. Given the large sub-transient impedance of conventional portable generators, and the fact that the original supply voltage waveform of conventional generators is appreciably distorted (a THD of 17-19%) to begin with, you have a situation where the return of any harmonic currents by a non-PFC electronic ballast (HMI or Kino) will result in significant waveform distortion of the voltage in the distribution system. The adverse effects of the harmonic noise generated by non-PFC electronic ballasts and exhibited here in the middle shot, can take the form of overheating and failing equipment, circuit breaker trips, excessive current on the neutral wire, and instability of the generator’s voltage and frequency. Harmonic noise of this magnitude can also damage HD digital cinema production equipment, create ground loops, and possibly create radio frequency (RF) interference.

http://www.screenlightandgrip.com/images/generators/wwaveform_elec_ballast.jpg
Left: Grid Power w/ 1.2Kw Arri non-PFC Elec. Ballast. Center: Conventional AVR Power w/ 1.2Kw Arri non-PFC Elec. Ballast. Right: Inverter Power w/ 1.2Kw Arri non-PFC Elec. Ballast.

As is evident in the oscilloscope shots below of a 1200W magnetic HMI ballasts on grid power, on power generated by a conventional Generator (Honda EX5500), and power generated by an inverter generator (Honda EU6500is), the lagging power factor caused by the inductive reactance of magnetic ballasts has by comparison only a moderately adverse effect on the power waveform. Outside of causing a voltage spike in the inverter power, magnetic ballasts actually show a positive effect on the already distorted power waveform of the Honda EX5500 conventional generator. For this reason magnetic ballasts work better on conventional generators with frequency governors than do non-PFC electronic square wave HMI ballasts.

http://www.screenlightandgrip.com/images/generators/wwaveform_mag_ballast.jpg
Left: Grid Power w/ 1.2Kw Arri Magnetic Ballast. Center: Conventional AVR Power w/ 1.2Kw Arri Magnetic Ballast. Right: Inverter Power w/ 1.2Kw Arri Magnetic Ballast.

These oscilloscope shots show that if you don’t have access to the newest PFC electronic ballasts, the older magnetic ballasts are in fact cleaner running on portable gas generators than non-PFC electronic ballasts. And, where inverter generators like the Honda EU6500is do not require crystal governors to run at precisely 60Hz, you can operate magnetic HMI ballasts reliably on them. In addition, the smaller magnetic ballasts (575-2500W) offer the distinct advantage of being less expensive and draw less power (once they have come up to speed) than the commonly available non-PFC electronic equivalents (13.5A versus 19A for a 1.2kw.)

Of course there are downsides to using magnetic ballasts. One down side is that you are restricted to using only the safe frame rates and shutter angles. But when you consider that every film made before the early 1990s was made this way, you realize it is not such a limitation. Another downside to magnetic ballasts is that you can’t load the generator to full capacity because you must leave “head room” for their higher front end striking load. When choosing HMIs to run off portable generators, bear in mind that a magnetic ballasts draws more current during the striking phase and then they “settle down” and require less power to maintain the HMI Arc. By contrast, an electronic ballasts “ramps up”. That is, its’ current draw gradually builds until it “tops off.”

For example, even though a 2.5 magnetic ballast draws approximately 26 amps you will not be able to run it reliably on the 30A/120V twist-lock receptacle on the generator’s power panel. As mentioned above, magnetic ballasts have a high front end striking load. For this reason, you must always leave “head room” on the generator for the strike. But, even though the twist-lock receptacle is rated for 30 Amps conventional 6500W generators are only capable of sustaining a peak load of 27.5 Amps per leg for a short period of time. Their continuous load capacity (more than 30 minutes) is 23 Amps per leg. And if there is any line loss from a long cable run the draw of a 2.5 magnetic ballast will climb to upward of 30 Amps. To make matters worse, the lagging power factor caused by the inductive reactance of the magnetic ballast kicking harmonic currents back into the power stream causes spikes in the supply voltage that can cause erratic tripping of the breakers on the generator or ballast. (for a more detailed explanation of why that is I, again, suggest you read my article.) In my experience the load of a 2.5kw magnetic ballast is too near the operating threshold of a 6500W generator for it to operate reliably.

http://www.screenlightandgrip.com/images/HD_PP_Demo_Transformer-Distro.jpg
Our 60A Full Power Transformer/Distro steps down the 240V output of a generator to a single 60A 120V circuit that is capable of accommodating the high front end striking load, and even the voltage spikes, of large HMI magnetic ballasts.

The only sure way to power a 120V 2.5kw (or even a 4kw) HMI magnetic ballast on a portable gas generator is from its 240V circuit through a 240v-to-120v step down transformer like the one we manufacture for our modified Honda EU6500is (pictured above.) Our 60A Full Power Transformer/Distro will step down the 240V output of the generator to a single 60A 120V circuit that is capable of accommodating the high front end striking load, and even the voltage spikes, of either a 2.5kw or 4kw magnetic ballast at 120V.

While older HMIs with magnetic ballasts are less expensive to purchase or rent, Power Factor Correction (PFC) makes the newest electronic ballasts worth the extra money when it comes to lighting with portable generators. For example, the substantial reduction in line noise that results from using power factor corrected ballasts on the nearly pure power waveform of an inverter generator creates a new math when it comes to calculating the load you can put on a generator. In the past we had to de-rate portable gas generators because of the inherent short comings of conventional generators with AVR and Frequency governing systems when dealing with non-PFC electronic ballasts. The harmonic distortion created by non-PFC ballasts reacting poorly with the distorted power waveform of conventional AVR generators limited the number of HMIs you could power on a portable generator to 75% of their rated capacity (4200Watts on a 6500W Generator). But now, where inverter generators have virtually no inherent harmonic distortion or sub-transient impedance and power factor correction (PFC) is available in small HMI ballasts, this conventional wisdom regarding portable gas generators no longer holds true. Where before you could not operate more than a couple 1200W HMIs with non-PFC ballasts on a conventional generator because of the consequent harmonic distortion, now according to the new math of low line noise, you can load an inverter generator to capacity. And if the generator is one of ScreenLight & Grip’s modified Honda EU6500is inverter generators, you will be able to run a continuous load of up to 7500W as long as your HMI and Kino ballasts are Power Factor Corrected.

According to this new math, when you add up the incremental savings in power to be gained by using only PFC HMI ballasts, add to it energy efficient sources like Kino Flos, and combine it with the pure waveform of inverter generators, you can run more HMI lights on a portable gas generator than has been possible before. For example, the lighting package pictured above consisted of a PFC 2.5kw HMI Par, PFC 1200, & 800 HMI Pars, a couple of Kino Flo ParaBeam 400s, a couple of ParaBeam 200s, and a Flat Head 80. Given the light sensitivity of the Red Camera we were using, this was all the light we needed to light a large night exterior. For more details on how this is accomplished I suggest you read my article on the use of portable generators in motion picture production which I mention above. The article is available at www.screenlightandgrip.com/html/emailnewsletter_generators.html.

Guy Holt, Gaffer, ScreenLight & Grip, Boston